Storage Batteries : The fuel tank of your solar power system
Without batteries to store energy you would only have power when the sun was shining or the generator was running.
1) RV / Marine / Golf Cart :
RV or Marine type deep cycle batteries are basically for boats & campers and are suitable for only very small systems. They can be used but do not really have the capacity for continuous service with many charge/discharge
cycles for many years. Regular or Car type batteries should not be used at all because they cannot be discharged very much without internal damage.
A very popular battery for small systems is the Golf Cart battery. They are somewhat more expensive than deep cycle recreational batteries but are probably the least expensive choice for a small system on a budget.
Industrial Strength : Flooded, Gel, and AGM sealed batteries
The next 3 types are the heavier industrial type batteries. They are all also considered Deep Cycle and are usually Lead Acid types with much thicker internal plates that can withstand many deep discharge cycles. These next 3 are all designed for alternative energy systems.
2) Flooded types :
These are Lead acid batteries that have caps to add water. They are reasonably priced and work well for many years. All flooded batteries release gas when charged and should not be used indoors. If installed in an enclosure, a venting system should be used to vent out the gases which can be explosive.
3) Gel :
Not to be confused with maintenance free batteries, sealed gel batteries have no vents and will not release gas during the charging process like flooded batteries do. Venting is therefore not required and they can be used indoors. This is a big advantage because it allows the batteries to maintain a more constant temperature and perform better.
4) AGM :
Absorbed Glass Mat batteries are in my opinion the best available for Solar Power use. A woven glass mat is used between the plates to hold the electrolyte. They are leak/spill proof, do not out gas when charging, and have superior performance. They have all the advantages of the sealed gel types and are higher quality, maintain voltage better, self discharge slower, and last longer. They are more expensive, but you usually get what you pay for. You will find this type of battery used in airplanes, hospitals, and remote telephone/cell tower installations.